0 - 1900 0-1900
1901 - 1950 1901-1950
1951 - 2000 1951-2000
2001 - 2017 2001-2017
Druh Nálezy podle období
0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2017
Atypus muralis (Bertkau, 1890) Silně ohrožený 2x 10x 88x 23x

Atypus muralis (Bertkau, 1890)

České jménoSklípkánek pontický
Stupeň ohroženíSilně ohrožený
Nálezy123 nálezů, 16 kvadrátů
První nález 1898, A. Nosek, Nosek 1898
Poslední nález 2016 , Radek Šich
Areál rozšířeníPalaearctic - E-T, ME
Fytogeografická oblastThermo
Původnost stanovišťclimax
Vlhkost stanovišťdry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišťopen
Hojnost výskyturare
Nadm. výška200-300

Literatura

V letech 2008 a 2010 bylo sledováno společenstvo pavouků (Araneae) sprašové stráně za hřbitovem v katastru obce Brozany nad Ohří (číslo faunistického čtverce 5550, 50°27´43˝N, 14°07´48˝E, 170 m n. m., Obr. 2). Tato lokalita je charakterizovaná jako v rámci Čech unikátní kavylová step na černozemní půdě na sprašové návěji (Řezáč 2009) s typickými xerotermo- filními rostlinnými druhy (Astragalus exscapus, Adonis vernalis, Verbascum phoeniceum, Stipa capillata aj.). Již po několik let je známá výskytem sklípkánků (Atypus sp.). Jejich nory s charakteristickými trubicovitými pavučinovými vyústěními (punčoškami, Obr. 3) zde objevil při botanickém průzkumu lokality Jan Novák a později pravidelně pozoroval Pavel Moravec (in verb.). Dosud nebyl k dispozici žádný dokladový vzorek, avšak Řezáč (2009) předpokládal podle charakteru lokality výskyt sklípkánka pontického, Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 (Obr. 4).

Aim Three species of primitive spiders of the genus Atypus occur in European xerothermic habitats, where they live in burrows. The aim of this study is to explain their distribution by investigating environmental variables at sites where they occur in central Europe.

Location Over 50 sites in central Europe, Czech Republic.

Methods Data on climatic, edaphic and vegetational parameters were collected from more than 50 sites. Phytocenological data were processed using Ellenberg’s indicator values.

Results Atypus muralis was found to occur almost exclusively in dry grassland (Festucion valesiacae), exposed to a continental microclimate. Atypus affinis usually occurred in dry sparse forests (Genisto germanicae–Quercion) that provide an Atlantic microclimate. Atypus piceus occurred in dry grassland (Bromion erecti) or forest fringes (Geranion sanguinei) characterized by an intermediate microclimate. Atypus piceus and A. muralis were restricted to agglutinate calcareous soils.

Main conclusions Our results show that Atypus species colonized sites with different continentality in central Europe. These differences correspond to differences among their probable glacial refugia. Atypus muralis and A. piceus occur in habitats with a markedly continental climate, and are restricted to calcareous agglutinate soils that more efficiently buffer temperature and humidity extremes. Habitats of A. muralis and A. piceus are threatened by overgrowth of vegetation after a recent decline in grazing and by the decalcification of the landscape. However, habitats of A. affinis are stable in the present central European climate.



Compared with araneomorph spiders, karyotypes of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae are nearly unknown. In this study we investigated karyotypes of European species of the genus Atypus (Atypidae). The male karyotype of A. muralis and A. piceus comprises 41 chromosomes, whereas female complements contain 42 chromosomes. On the other hand, both sexes of A. affinis possess 14 chromosomes only. It is the lowest diploid number found in mygalomorph spiders so far. Furthermore, obtained data suggest X0 sex chromosome system in A. piceus, A. muralis and neo-XY system in A. affinis. Karyotypes of all three Atypus species are composed of biarmed chromosomes only. Thus they differ significantly from the karyotype of A. karschi , the only other species of this genus studied so far. Its karyotype was reported to be composed of acrocentric chromosomes and possesses X1X20 sex chromosome system. All this shows that unlike in most genera of araneomorph spiders, mygalomorphs of the genus Atypus exhibit unusual diversity in the number, morphology of chromosomes, and the sex chromosome system. Considering high number of chromosomes being plesiomorphic character in spiders, then karyotypes of A. muralis and A. piceus represent ancestral situation and that of A. affinis being derived by multiple fusions. Karyotype differences in Atypus correspond with morphological differences, namely the number of segments of the posterior lateral spinnerets. Thus in contrast to published hypothesis, the 3-segmented posterior lateral spinnerets of A. affinis should present a derived state.



Statistiky

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Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (40 použitých nálezů)
Atypus muralis (Bertkau, 1890) ENSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Individuální sběr36016
Fotografie0202
Zemní past261322
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (27 použitých nálezů)
Atypus muralis (Bertkau, 1890) ENSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Louky1101
skalní stepi na vápenci163013
travnaté stepi41238
lesostepní doubravy4004
Louky a pastviny1001
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy